||Delayed engraftment and graft failure represent major obstacles to successful umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation. Herein, we evaluated the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy as an intervention to improve human UCB stem/progenitor cell engraftment in an immune deficient mouse model. Six- to eight-week old NSG mice were sublethally irradiated 24hours prior to CD34(+) UCB cell transplant. Irradiated mice were separated into a non-HBO group (where mice remained under normoxic conditions) and the HBO group (where mice received 2 hours of HBO therapy; 100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute). Four hours after completing HBO therapy, both groups intravenously received CD34(+) UCB cells that were transduced with a lentivirus carrying luciferase gene and expanded for in vivo imaging. Mice were imaged and then sacrificed at one of 10 times up to 4.5months post-transplant. HBO treated mice demonstrated significantly improved bone marrow, peripheral blood, and spleen retention and subsequent engraftment. In addition, HBO significantly improved peripheral, spleen and bone marrow engraftment of human myeloid and B-cell subsets. In vivo imaging demonstrated that HBO mice had significantly higher ventral and dorsal bioluminescence values. These studies suggest that HBO treatment of NSG mice prior to UCB CD34(+) cell infusion significantly improves engraftment.