||In insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (T1D), self-reactive T cells infiltrate pancreatic islets and induce beta cell destruction and dysregulation of blood glucose. A goal is to control only the self-reactive T cells, leaving the remainder of the T cell population free to protect the host. One approach is blockade of the second signal for T cell activation while allowing the first (antigen-specific) signal to occur. This work proposes that small peptides that block interaction of second signals delivered through the counter receptors LFA-1:ICAM-1 will induce attacking T cells (receiving the antigen signal) to become anergic or undergo apoptosis. In NOD mice, the peptides eliminated T cell reactivity against pancreatic antigens and reduced cellular infiltration into islets, which retained stronger density of insulin staining at five weeks after cessation of therapy. In in vitro studies the peptides induced nonresponsiveness during activation of T cells from mice and from human peripheral blood.